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Server Management FAQ


  1. Apache Web Server
  2. IIS Web Server
  3. Mail Systems
  4. PHP
  5. Unix & Linux

Apache Web Server - Coming soon...

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Mail Systems ...

      The problem is with Abuse Violations. Most web hosts nowadays operate on a "shared hosting" environment. This means that there are more than one domain hosted on a single physical web server. All the resources, including the IP addresses, are shared. Now let's say domain1.com is a great customer, but domain2.com is a SPAMMER! He uses the web server's SMTP to send out hundreds of thousands of unsolicited emails before being caught, but by that time it is too late. Damage is already done. More than likely your IP address has been "Blacklisted" by SpamCop, SpamHaus, or other DNSBL's that help prevent SPAM from reaching good email accounts around the world. Once your IP address is Blacklisted, it has a negative impact on ALL the accounts on your shared web server.
      If the perpetrator had been normal and used his ISP's SMTP, you would have prevented the situation totally. Even if he spoofs his (or another domain) to the offending messages, the DNSBLs can see right through it in most cases. If the ISP bans the user then that is fine, it is no problem of yours as a host. Additionally (and most importantly) if the problem involves legal issues, YOUR WEB SERVER is the last easily tracable location of the offense!

      Yes, but in that case all the actions will be regulated by the mail server and logged and timestampped in log files if the server is properly configured using Suexec, etc..

      Yes, I did it on mine. I am not an outlook expert by any means, but it just works, it is really cool...
      When I receive an email from lets say webmaster@domain1.com, I just click REPLY and outlook knows to send it "from" webmaster@domain1.com...
      ditto that for domain2.com, domain3.com and so on. All use the SMTP from the ISP.
      It is transparent unless someone views the full mail headers and traces that end IP. If someone is not cool with that then 99% they are doing something very shady. That is the theory in a nutshell.


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Who is ... ?

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Unix & Linux

  • Is there a list of common Shell commands?
    • Sure:
      Common SSH Commands or Linux Shell Commands

      ls : list files/directories in a directory, comparable to dir in windows/dos.
      ls -al : shows all files (including ones that start with a period), directories, and details attributes for each file.
      vdir : gives a more detailed listing than the ls command

      pwd : shows full path of current directory

      clear : clears the screen

      cd : change directory cd /usr/local/apache : go to /usr/local/apache/ directory
      cd ~ : go to your home directory
      cd - : go to the last directory you were in
      cd .. : go up a directory cat : print file contents to the screen

      cat filename.txt : cat the contents of filename.txt to your screen

      tail : like cat, but only reads the end of the file
      tail /var/log/messages : see the last 20 (by default) lines of /var/log/messages
      tail -f /var/log/messages : watch the file continuously, while it's being updated
      tail -200 /var/log/messages : print the last 200 lines of the file to the screen

      more : like cat, but opens the file one screen at a time rather than all at once
      more /etc/userdomains : browse through the userdomains file. hit to go to the next page, to quit

      pico : friendly, easy to use file editor
      pico /home/burst/public_html/index.html : edit the index page for the user's website.

      vi : another editor, tons of features, harder to use at first than pico
      vi /home/burst/public_html/index.html : edit the index page for the user's website.

      grep : looks for patterns in files
      grep root /etc/passwd : shows all matches of root in /etc/passwd
      grep -v root /etc/passwd : shows all lines that do not match root

      touch : create an empty file
      touch /home/burst/public_html/404.html : create an empty file called 404.html in the directory /home/burst/public_html/

      ln : create's "links" between files and directories
      ln -s /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf /etc/httpd.conf : Now you can edit /etc/httpd.conf rather than the original. changes will affect the orginal, however you can delete the link and it will not delete the original.

      rm : delete a file
      rm filename.txt : deletes filename.txt, will more than likely ask if you really want to delete it
      rm -f filename.txt : deletes filename.txt, will not ask for confirmation before deleting.
      rm -rf tmp/ : recursively deletes the directory tmp, and all files in it, including subdirectories. BE VERY CAREFULL WITH THIS COMMAND!!!

      last : shows who logged in and when
      last -20 : shows only the last 20 logins
      last -20 -a : shows last 20 logins, with the hostname in the last field

      w : shows who is currently logged in and where they are logged in from.

      netstat : shows all current network connections.
      netstat -an : shows all connections to the server, the source and destination ips and ports.
      netstat -rn : shows routing table for all ips bound to the server.

      top : shows live system processes in a nice table, memory information, uptime and other useful info. This is excellent for managing your system processes, resources and ensure everything is working fine and your server isn't bogged down.
      top then type Shift + M to sort by memory usage or Shift + P to sort by CPU usage

      ps : ps is short for process status, which is similar to the top command. It's used to show currently running processes and their PID.
      A process ID is a unique number that identifies a process, with that you can kill or terminate a running program on your server (see kill command).
      ps U username : shows processes for a certain user
      ps aux : shows all system processes
      ps aux --forest : shows all system processes like the above but organizes in a hierarchy that's very useful!

      file : attempts to guess what type of file a file is by looking at it's content.
      file * : prints out a list of all files/directories in a directory

      du : shows disk usage.
      du -sh : shows a summary, in human-readble form, of total disk space used in the current directory, including subdirectories.
      du -sh * : same thing, but for each file and directory. helpful when finding large files taking up space.

      wc : word count
      wc -l filename.txt : tells how many lines are in filename.txt

      cp : copy a file
      cp filename filename.backup : copies filename to filename.backup
      cp -a /home/burst/new_design/* /home/burst/public_html/ : copies all files, retaining permissions form one directory to another.

      mv old_filename new_filename : move/rename a file

      chmod 755 dirname_or_filename : change permissions of a certain directory or file
      0 = --- (no permission)
      1 = --x (execute only)
      2 = -w- (write only)
      3 = -wx (write and execute)
      4 = r-- (read only)
      5 = r-x (read and execute)
      6 = rw- (read and write)
      7 = rwx (read, write and execute)

      kill: terminate a system process
      kill -9 PID EG: kill -9 431
      kill PID EG: kill 10550
      Use top or ps aux to get system PIDs (Process IDs)


      Each line represents one process, with a process being loosely defined as a running instance of a program. The column headed PID (process ID) shows the assigned process numbers of the processes. The heading COMMAND shows the location of the executed process.

      Putting commands together
      Often you will find you need to use different commands on the same line. Here are some examples. Note that the | character is called a pipe, it takes date from one program and pipes it to another.
      > means create a new file, overwriting any content already there.
      >> means tp append data to a file, creating a newone if it doesn not already exist.
      < send input from a file back into a command.

      grep User /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf |more
      This will dump all lines that match User from the httpd.conf, then print the results to your screen one page at a time.

      last -a > /root/lastlogins.tmp
      This will print all the current login history to a file called lastlogins.tmp in /root/

      tail -10000 /var/log/exim_mainlog |grep domain.com |more
      This will grab the last 10,000 lines from /var/log/exim_mainlog, find all occurances of domain.com (the period represents 'anything',
      -- comment it out with a so it will be interpretted literally), then send it to your screen page by page.

      netstat -an |grep :80 |wc -l
      Show how many active connections there are to apache (httpd runs on port 80)

      mysqladmin processlist |wc -l
      Show how many current open connections there are to mysql

      Restart Features: Restart Cpanel in SSH #:
      /etc/rc.d/init.d/cpanel restart
      If you want to restart other services you can do a directory listing of all services in that folder.

      exit : log off

      If you have any more ssh commands that you would like to add to the list that would be great.
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